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PROXEMICS

Science of Human Connection

The term proxemics sought by the anthropologist, Edward T. Hall in 1963, to describe the measurable distances between people as they interact with each other. The term proxemia refers to the employment and perception that the human being makes of its physical space, of its personal privacy; how and with whom it uses that space.

 

The study shown in this article exemplifies the American culture studied by Hall. For this reason, it is important to mention that in the full study, Edward Hall pointed out that different cultures maintain different standards of interpersonal space.

 

In Latin cultures, for example, those relative distances are smaller, and people tend to be more comfortable near each other. In the Nordic cultures it is the opposite. Realizing and recognizing these cultural differences will improve intercultural understanding, and help eliminate the discomfort that people may feel if the interpersonal distance is too great or too small, depending on the culture with which they deal.

 

Additionally, personal distances also depend on the social situation, gender, and individual preference.

 

Hall divided his study as follows:

 

Fixed Space: it is marked by immovable structures, like the borders of the countries.

 

Semi-Fixed Space: space around the body. It varies according to cultures, since each culture structures its physical space. This space can be invaded. If a foreign territory is used with disrespect (stare at someone or occupy two seats with bags when there are people standing) there is a violation of the land.

On the other hand, Hall noted that the social distance between people is generally correlated with physical distance and described four different types of distance. These distances would be subcategories of personal or informal space.

 


Internal Distance: is the distance between 15 and 45 centimeters (6 to 18 inches). It is the space which each person guards and maintains most. For this closeness to occur people have to have a lot of confidence, and in some cases they will be emotionally united, since communication will be through eyes, touch and sound. It is the area of ​​friends, couples, family etc. Within this area is the lower area, about 15 centimeters from the body, the so-called private intimate zone.

Personal Distance: between 46 and 120 centimeters (1.56 - 4 feet). This distance is given in the office, meetings, assemblies, parties, friendly conversations or work. If we stretch the arm, we get to touch the person with whom we are holding the conversation.

 

Social Distance: between 120 and 360 centimeters (4 - 12 feet). It is the distance that separates us from strangers. It is used with people with whom we have no friendly relationship, people who do not know each other well.  For example: the shop assistant, the mason, the suppliers, the new employees, etc.



Public Distance: given more than 360 centimeters (12 feet) and has no limit. It is the ideal distance to address a group of people. The tone of voice is high and this distance is the one used in conferences, colloquia or talks. In human interactions, observable behavior can vary as a function of the subjects (individuals) involved.


According to social anthropologists, we can identify a structure that identifies nine levels of human systems that are relevant in our social universe. The person as a whole individual. The internal dynamics of person and substitute-beings. The person-person composed of any two-person relationship. The family. The group. The organization. The community in which the organization exists. The society of all human beings on the planet. 


The Economic and Political Aspect according to the Economic Theory: -The human needs could be considered as limited and limited resources, the individual or society must choose between a series of combinations of resources (time and money, from the point of view of the individual) that best meets these needs. Then we can say that... The economic studies focus on the processes and mechanisms with respect to the choice of different combinations of resources that are intended to meet the needs of the individual.


An economic analysis must begin to individualize as if these were the agents (subject) that participate, and it is the variable or element that you want to maximize (benefits, pleasure, etc.) and the restrictions or relationships are subject (the pleasures). These agents of the economy participate in the above levels of human interaction.


An analysis of resources (land, capital, time, etc.) estimated in Western economies, where possession prevails as a determinant of the allocation (distribution and use) of these resources. That is, the individual determines how and where to invest or allocate their resources and how and in what activities to allocate their time. It is a clear connection between the individual economy and the global society.

 

 

LIPS©: The First Interactive Chocolate for Sharing
 

Possession is the root of all economic aspects. If we promote with LIPS© or the new generation of design objects that promote the high act of "SHARING" ... These policies that will be generated in all the above-mentioned levels of interaction will contribute to promote: more equality, a better distribution of resources, and an atmosphere of peace and love in our social universe.

 

Through a design process that takes into account all the considerations that intervene in the comfort of human activities in terms of their functionality, environment in development, and cultural variables, such as our differences.